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什麼是仇恨言論,應否及如何管制

465

自於民法權利不得濫用之理論,另一者是基於防衛式民主之理念,

希望能阻絕公約之敵人,避免以自由之名毀壞自由。一般認為後者

才是明定公約第

17

條之理由

(

Roca, 2012: 505-512

)。

而且本條的規範特質是,如果行為違反本條規定,個人即使欲

行使公約之權利,亦不受保障。因此一旦被認為其行為或活動構成

損害公約所保障之權利,或是超越公約之目的,即不受公約之保

障,因而其特質是將特定行為或活動直接排除對其之保障,而非僅

是限制而已。

2.

個別限制

公約針對特定權利規定限制條款,對於表意自由而言,公約第

10

條第

1

項但書規定「此條款不應限制各國要求廣播、電視或電影

事業應取得證照之權利。」

26

公約第

10

條第

2

項規定「因為這些

自由之實行附有義務及責任,得依法且於符合民主社會之需要時,

因國家安全、領土完整或公共安全之利益、防止失序或犯罪、保護

健康或道德、保護他人之名譽或權利、防止洩露應保密之訊息或維

護司法之權威及公正性,而附加準則、條件、限制或處罰。」

27

有關集會與結社自由,公約第

11

條第

2

項亦規定「除非依據法律,

tation to a greater extent than is provided for in the Convention.

26

英文原文為:

This Article shall not prevent States from requiring the licensing of

broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises.

27

英文原文為:

The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and re-

sponsibilities, may be subject to such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties

as are prescribed by law and necessary in a democratic society. In the interests of na-

tional security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or

crime, for the protection of health or morals, for the protection of the reputation or

rights of others, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence,

or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary.