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training, conferences, workshops, exercises, and drills.

Governments at all levels, on the one hand, should encourage

EM public officials to participate in these activities to

accumulate their social capitals, improve their mutual

understanding, and strengthen their formal and informal

networks. On the other hand, both central and local

governments in Taiwan should consider how to systematically

provide EM training programs and diverse EM exercises and

drills to provide a platform for information-exchanging,

relationship-building, and knowledge-sharing among EM public


Third, professional capability and collaborative leadership

of local emergency mangers are crucial for strengthening local

EM capacity and facilitating local EM collaboration.

Professionalized and experienced EM directors make

collaboration possible. Learning how to recruit and retain

professional and experienced emergency managers at all levels

of governments, and continuously increasing their competencies

in both technological and managerial areas are important issues

that central and local governments must address.

Fourth, although local EM collaboration is theoretically

viewed important and necessary, it is not easy to be fully

implemented in the real world. Taiwan’s central government is

suggested to motivate local governments to collaborate with all

actual or potential public, private, and nonprofit partners

vertically and horizontally through diverse policy tools.

Nonetheless, regardless of the types of policy tools that central

government applies to stimulate collaboration, it must listen to

local voices and take community diversity into consideration.

In sum, this study tries to use local government managers’

perspectives to study why and how local governments

collaborate with non-governmental organizations and business

industries in local EM. Future research should include the views

from non-governmental organizations and business industries to