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Exploring the dynamics

53

Organizational attention

Hazard recognition

Hazard recognition encourages

local governments and com-

munities to pay attention and

invest their resources in EM.

Mutual understanding

Stay in touch with current or

potential partners.

Develop a good relationship in a

normal

time

period

by

accumulating

positive

ex-

periences in daily interaction and

communication.

Build friendship.

Build a positive relationship

and facilitate EM collabo

-

ration via strong mutual

understanding,

which

is

realized by keeping in touch

with partners in daily

interaction and communi

-

cations.

Institution/national

standard

Rationale for vertical collabo-

ration and horizontal- interlocal

collaboration: Legal requirements

(Stafford Disaster Relief and

Emergency Assistance Act, Florida

state law)

Mutual aid programs

NIMS helps people from

different places communicate

efficiently and effectively and

therefore decreases misunder-

standing during an emergency.

Over-formalized

structure,

centralized control, and tedious

paperwork were mentioned as

being problematic for using

NIMS for collaboration.

Both federal and state statutes

give local governments legal

reasons

to

collaborate

vertically.

The Florida statute authorizes

local governments in Florida

to develop and sign mutual

aid agreements within the

state.

EM-related

mutual

aid

agreements are popular

among local governments.

The pros and cons of NIMS

need to be considered.

EM managers

leadership/capability

Respondents viewed themselves

like a conductor in a symphony.

Their duties are as follows:

Receive information from higher

levels of governments

Depict and certify local EM plans

and enhance local EM capacity

Make decisions

Encourage or implement various

collaborations

Capabilities:

Flexible

Favorable interpersonal skills

Rapidly adjust to all kinds of

situations

Local emergency managers

play a crucial role in

enhancing local EM capacity

and encouraging collaboration

in

both

vertical

and

horizontal contexts.

Local emergency managers

are not the people who stand

on the front line; however,

they need to handle daily EM

work well and be ready to

face any emergency at any

time.