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Exploring the dynamics


natural and man-made disasters. Collaboration is also

critical for local governments to connect with higher

levels of governments and governments in different local

jurisdictions because it reduces possible vertical and horizontal

fragmentation when managing disasters. This study categorizes

collaboration into three different types (i.e., vertical, horizontal-

interlocal, and horizontal-intersectoral collabo- rations) and

contributes in developing a framework with three dimensions

(i.e., organizational internal factors, organizational external

factors, and EM capacity) to study the drivers of the three

different collaborations. Different rationales and common

drivers behind each type of local EM collaboration are identified.

In turn, this study provides a chance to connect local practical

views with theoretical intergovernmental collaboration

literature and explores how local EM system works vertically

and horizontally in Florida.

This study also offers insights and strategies to improve

local EM collaboration in Taiwan. First, EM is about shared

governance. Therefore, collaboration across levels of

governments is critical and necessary. Interlocal and

intersectoral collaborations are also indispensable for local

governments to provide public security services efficiently and

enhance community resiliency successfully. Based on the Florida

experience, strengthening collaboration through various types

of institution such as NIMS, mutual aid agreements, and

MOU/MOA in both vertical and horizontal contexts is a viable

strategy. However, the usefulness, interoperability, flexibility,

and accountability of these systems must be confirmed to avoid

the potential problem of red tape.

Second, building good formal and informal relationships

with all actual and potential partners in the vertical and

horizontal contexts in normal times leads to successful

collaboration in emergency times. These formal and

information relationships are usually built in friendships from