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Exploring the dynamics


organizations in the local EM planning process, or sign mutual

aid agreements with other nearby local governments in order to

respond effectively to emergencies. Better EM capacity also

gives local governments a greater ability to operate these

complicated collaborative initiatives in the EM program. At the

same time, other private companies and non-profit

organizations may be attracted to collaborate with local

governments with greater EM capacities to request EM-related

resources and intelligence, or improve their reputation by

demonstrating that they possess better quality EM (Graddy &

Chen, 2009).

B. Organizational Internal Factors

(A) Shortages of Financial, Human, and Information


The influence of resources on collaboration is a widely

studied research topic, and related management and

organizational theories have been proposed (Alter & Hage,

1993; Fleishman, 2009; Gazley, 2008; Levine & White, 1961;

Thomson & Perry, 2006; Van de Ven, Emmett, & Koenig,

1975). The aforementioned theories posit that an organization

that lacks internal resources will seek external support by

collaborating with other organizations.

In the case of U.S. EM, local governments are at the

frontline of dealing with various emergencies. However, they

also face shortages of human and financial resources, especially

at times of serious fiscal difficulties. Therefore, local

governments maybe more likely to rely on vertical and

horizontal collaborative actions to secure local EM. For

example, a local government may seek grants from federal and

state governments to resolve budget shortfalls. They may also

ask for volunteers from local non-profit organizations to expand

administrative capacity and help local EM (Patton, 2007), or