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Exploring the dynamics


also involved in the process of assistance. At the apex of the

pyramid are the disasters that require local, state, and federal

resources (Rubin, 2007). Moreover, floods, earthquakes,

tornadoes, hurricanes, and other natural disasters usually cause

damages across different administrative borders. Therefore,

local governments understand that working alone to deal with

disasters is unrealistic and may result in failure (Bryson &

Crosby, 2008; Bryson et al., 2006). Sharing a cross-border view

and collaborating with others are keys to successfully dealing

with all hazard types. In other words, the disaster severity level

is related to the interdependency of each local government.

(B) Resource Dependence on Federal and State


The basic assumption of the resource dependency theory

is that organizations are embedded in networks of interde-

pendencies and social relationships. Their needs for financial,

physical, or informational resources to achieve organizational

goals are provided by the environment, which forces

organizations to be dependent on external sources for these

resources. As each organization is in the same dependent

position, exchange relationships develop (Fleishman, 2009).

Through the development of exchange relationships, individual

organizations build stable inter-organizational connections for

securing their sources of resources and ensuring that their

organization survives.

In cases of EM in the U.S., the federal government

provides two types of principal funding: pre- and post-disaster

funding (Sylves, 2007). Several principal grant programs have

been created for processing pre-disaster funding, such as the

Homeland Security Grant Program, the Law Enforcement

Terrorism Prevention Program, the Emergency Management

Performance Grant Program, and the Assistance to Firefighters

Grant Program. These pre-disaster funds are used as grants for