Exploring the dynamics
capable of conducting collaborative initiatives with the private
sector and non-governmental organizations in the EM program.
Concurrently, private companies and non-profit organizations,
which need EM-related resources and intelligence, or desire to
enhance their reputations and images, can be attracted to work
with local governments (Graddy & Chen, 2009).
(C) Community Attributes
Ostrom (2005) in her framework for Institutional Analysis
and Development (IAD) argues that community attributes have
critical effects on the action arena. Therefore, considering
influences of community attributes is necessary when discussing
the pattern of interaction in localities. Feiock (2008) emphasizes
the importance of community characteristics in analyzing
collective actions among local governments.
Demographic homogeneity among communities
reduces the likelihood of political and economic power
asymmetries that advantage one of the parties and
create problems for negotiating fair divisions of
benefits. Neighboring jurisdictions that are similarly
situated begin from a position of mutual dependence.
(Feiock, 2008: 201)
In the case of local EM, local communities must consider similar
risks and demographic homogeneity when engaging in the
various types of collaboration.
VI. Methodology and Data
This study collects qualitative data through interviews to
explore activities, rationales, and other drivers of local EM
collaboration in both vertical and horizontal contexts. Local
emergency managers, which include both county and city EM
directors in Florida, were chosen as the interview subjects.