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Exploring the dynamics


capable of conducting collaborative initiatives with the private

sector and non-governmental organizations in the EM program.

Concurrently, private companies and non-profit organizations,

which need EM-related resources and intelligence, or desire to

enhance their reputations and images, can be attracted to work

with local governments (Graddy & Chen, 2009).

(C) Community Attributes

Ostrom (2005) in her framework for Institutional Analysis

and Development (IAD) argues that community attributes have

critical effects on the action arena. Therefore, considering

influences of community attributes is necessary when discussing

the pattern of interaction in localities. Feiock (2008) emphasizes

the importance of community characteristics in analyzing

collective actions among local governments.

Demographic homogeneity among communities

reduces the likelihood of political and economic power

asymmetries that advantage one of the parties and

create problems for negotiating fair divisions of

benefits. Neighboring jurisdictions that are similarly

situated begin from a position of mutual dependence.

(Feiock, 2008: 201)

In the case of local EM, local communities must consider similar

risks and demographic homogeneity when engaging in the

various types of collaboration.

VI. Methodology and Data

This study collects qualitative data through interviews to

explore activities, rationales, and other drivers of local EM

collaboration in both vertical and horizontal contexts. Local

emergency managers, which include both county and city EM

directors in Florida, were chosen as the interview subjects.