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planning, training, exercising, infrastructure maintenance, or

equipment purchase-related activities. Post-disaster funds, such

as the Public Assistance Grant Program and the Individual and

Family Grant Program, are used to repair or replace local

infrastructures, reimburse non-profit organizations’ spending

on disaster relief, or providing direct aid to individuals and

families after the issuance of the Presidential Disaster

Declaration (Sylves, 2007). State governments are responsible

for funneling these grants to local governments.

Collaboration across levels of governments and among

local governments can be directly enhanced through the grant

system. On the one hand, as Sylves (2007) argued, the greater

the share of federal and state funding, the more likely that local

governments will follow EM policy guidelines formulated by

state and federal governments (because such compliance to the

guidelines leads to successful funding in the future). On the

other hand, many federal grants work under multi-

jurisdictional projects, which follow a regional EM approach

(McEntire & Dawson, 2007). The assumption behind this

approach is that jurisdictions would share their resources in

times of need. A regional approach encourages local governments

to share resources and information with each other in the

context of EM to achieve collective benefits (Caruson &

MacManus, 2007; McEntire & Dawson, 2007). When local

governments receive higher funding from federal and state

governments, they are more likely to be regulated by grant

criteria which require local governments to behave as regional

partners and implement intergovernmental collaboration.

Federal and state funds can also indirectly enhance

horizontal-intersectoral collaboration through increasing EM

capacity. For example, when local governments receive federal

or state funds, they can use these funds to purchase equipment,

conduct exercises and training, and improve public EM

education, which increases their EM capacity. Once local

governments have higher EM capacity, they become more