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efforts in improvisational ways under the federal-state, state-

local, internal to state, external to state, and public-private

partnerships through logistical, jurisdictional and governance

domains of response coordination was particularly closely

studied. They recognize that coordination in both vertical and

horizontal dimensions is not easy to manage during the

emergency response period.

B. Horizontal-Interlocal Collaboration

Horizontal-interlocal collaboration refers to collaboration

among local governments. In the U.S., local governments refer

to cities, counties, special districts, and other smaller units. In

order to efficiently deliver community services, local

governments often decide to collaborate and build partnerships

through signing interlocal agreements. This kind of voluntary

coordination mechanism is particularly popular in metropolitan

areas where the problems of fragmentation are frequently

serious and institutional complexity makes the implementation

of standardized solutions difficult (Feiock, 2008). Based on

Feiock’s (2013) Institutional Collective Action framework, local

governments expect to reduce costs and increase benefits

through functional or geographical collaboration with other

units when delivering public services. In other words, joint

actions happen only when organizations conclude that the

potential benefits of joint actions outweigh their costs.

In the EM context, local governments collaborating with

one another is indispensable because the impacts of disasters can

be huge and cross-jurisdictional. Therefore, local governments

commonly share information and jointly respond to

emergencies or disasters. For example, a local government may

cooperate with other nearby jurisdictions within a region to

suppress a fire that has spread across administrative boundaries,

or design feasible standard operating procedures throughout a

metropolitan area (McEntire & Dawson, 2007). The local