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Exploring the dynamics


government can also decide to join the EM

mutual aid program

and sign agreements to offer or receive structured assistance in

the event of a disaster (Cohn, 2005; Henstra, 2010; Patton,

2007). Recent studies have also reminded us that community

contextual factors must be taken into consideration when

studying the different levels of interlocal collaboration (e.g.,

social capital network-based collaboration) (Johnson et al.,

2015). At the county level, convergence of organizational goals,

utilization of information and communication technology, and

interorganizational trust also have significant effects on network

sustainability in EM (Kapucu et al., 2013).

C. Horizontal-Intersectoral Collaboration

Horizontal-intersectoral collaboration describes an

interaction across public and private sectors or across public and

non-profit sectors within policy networks. The interaction is

governed through contracts and formal agreements (Gazley,

2008; O’Leary, Gazley, McGuire, & Bingham, 2009) and may

entail sharing resources on a case-by-case basis. Such

interactions may often evolve into long-term partner

relationships where all participant organizations make symbolic

or substantial contributions and share responsibility for the

outcomes to produce more favorable results and solutions

(O’Leary et al., 2009). Bryson and Crosby (2008) further

defined cross-sector collaboration as “the linking or sharing of

information, goodwill, and good intensions; resources; activities,

and power or capabilities by organizations in two or more

sectors to achieve jointly an outcome that could not be achieved

by organizations in one sector separately.” Their definition

implies that by engaging in cross-sector collaboration, endeavors

that would have otherwise ended in failure (if an organization

were working alone) will end in success. Moreover, the success

of cross-sector collaboration relies on the capabilities of each