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sector, appropriately utilizing the strengths of each sector, and

minimizing the weaknesses of each.

In the EM context, intersectoral collaboration originated

from local communities. In addition, scholars have paid

attention to the influence of public-private partnerships on

increasing community resiliency (Busch & Givens, 2013). For

example, Project Impact, a community-based program initiated

in the 1990s and featuring a four-year life span, was designed to

harness local support from public and private agencies. This

program successfully gave rise to about 250 communities

engaging in public-private collaboration to respond to disasters

and develop local EM (Patton, 2007). Brudney and Gazley

(2009) found a positive relationship between “level of joint

planning with voluntary organizations” and “public managers’

perception of emergency preparedness (at the county level),”

which highlighted the crucial role played by private and

nonprofit voluntary organizations in improving local emergency

preparedness. Recently, Rivera (2016) analyzed a national

survey of county EM agencies and discovered that a public

agency’s autonomy does not influence its choice to work with

voluntary organizations in the development of EM plans,

whereas the type of organization that an EM agency is situated

in does.



The Drivers of Local Emergency Management

Collaboration: Theoretical Framework

This study proposes that local EM collaboration in the U.S.

is driven by EM capacity, organizational internal factors, and

organizational external factors (Chang, 2012). EM capacity is

related to the ability of local governments to deal with all hazard

types. The organizational internal factors cover the perspectives

of resource shortage, organizational attention, mutual

understanding, institution and national standards, emergency