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human, physical, technological, informational, and other

necessary resources to achieve a specific goal (Gazley, 2008;

Ingraham, Joyce, & Donahue, 2003). Previous studies have

discussed how a government’s capacity influences its

performance (Ingraham et al., 2003), innovation adoption (Kim

& Lee, 2009), and implementation of indirect governance and

privatization (Kettl, 1988; Rainey, 2003). Organizational

capacity can also be viewed as one determinant of collaboration

(Agranoff & McGuire, 2003; Bardach, 1998; Gazley, 2008;

O’Leary et al., 2009). When an organization has higher capacity

(i.e., sufficient human, financial, and technological resources

and knowledge), a clear strategic plan, and effective

implementation power, it is expected that collaboration will be

easier and more likely to occur. This is because an organization

with a higher capacity is expected to have a better ability to deal

with complex issues and difficulties while implementing

collaborative actions. From the organizational legitimacy

perspective, an organization with strong capacity may be viewed

as a model organization, which attracts other organizations that

want to improve their reputation, intelligence, and legitimacy to

collaborate with them (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983).

In local EM, McGuire and Silvia (2010) indicate that the

program-oriented capacity of a public manager and his or her

home organization is positively associated with a greater level of

external collaboration within that program area. In other words,

in the vertical context, local governments with stronger EM

capacities have greater abilities to implement EM policies

promulgated by state and federal governments and to give

substantive feedback. Local governments with better EM

capacities also have greater abilities to conduct EM planning and

to prepare for dealing with potential emergencies. Moreover,

they perform well when applying for grants from state and

federal governments. In the horizontal context, local

governments may include private companies and non-profit