148

*E*

*UR*

*A*

*MERICA*

focus of the study and was chosen in order to examine whether

advanced education plays an increasingly important role in mortality

compression in the United States. These education categories

roughly correspond to less than a high school education or its

equivalent (0-11 years), a high school degree or its equivalent (12

years), some college education or higher (13+ years), some college

but not a bachelor’s degree (13-15 years), bachelor’s degree or

higher (16+ years) (Brown et al., 2012; Hummer & Hernandez,

2013; Montez et al., 2012).

C. Analytic Approach

All-cause mortality rates are estimated from Gompertz models

that regress the risk of death on age, and models are stratified by sex

and education:

(1)

where,

*x*

is age, and

(2)

The hazard function

*m*

(

*x*

) is a conditional failure rate that gives

the instantaneous potential per unit time for the death incidence,

given that the respondent has survived up to time

*x*

(Kleinbaum &

Klein, 2005; Teachman & Hayward, 1993). The study adopts

mortality rates estimated from regression models rather than

obtaining through observation of the sample in order to smooth the

fluctuations of mortality rates by ages

.

Probability of surviving from age

*x*

to

*x*

+1:

(3)

Probability of dying from age

*x*

to

*x*

+1:

(4)

The life tables are calculated based on the estimated all-cause

mortality rates, and the probability of surviving/dying calculated

from the all-cause mortality rates above. They begin at age 50 and