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154

E

UR

A

MERICA

0.05). Older American women with 12 years of education have a

statistically smaller standard deviation above the modal age of death

[SD(

M

+) = 6.9, 95% CI = (6.4-7.4)] than do American women

with 0-11 years of education (p < 0.05). The difference of SD(

M

+)

between women with 12 years of education and women with 13+

years of education is not statistically significant (p > 0.05). However,

women with 0-11 years of education and men with 13+ years of

education have comparative modal ages of death and SD(

M

+), and

the differences are not statistically significant (p > 0.05).

After

breaking down 13+ years of education into 13-15 and 16+ years of

education, women with 16+ years of education have higher modal

age at death [

M

= 90.0, 95% CI = (89.2-90.9)] and a smaller

standard deviation above the modal age of death [SD(

M

+) = 6.2,

95% CI = (5.7-6.6)] than those of women with 12 years of

education (p < 0.05). However, the differences of M and SD(

M

+)

between women with 16+ years of education and women with 13-

15 years of education are not statistically significant (p > 0.05).

Neither are the differences of M and SD(

M

+) between women with

13-15 years of education and women with 12 years of education.

IV. Discussion

The results not only show the educational gradients of longevity

along with mortality compression but also imply that advanced

education has become increasingly important in determining life

chances in the United States. Overall, individuals with more

education are living longer (higher LE and

M

) and experiencing

more compressed mortality compared to those with less education.

This is consistent with the findings of Brown et al. (2012) who use

HRS and National Health Interview Survey – Linked Mortality Files

conducted in earlier years to examine the relationship between

educational attainment and mortality compression for older

American men and women. Further, the study goes beyond their

trichotomized educational attainment measure to examine whether