50 Years and Beyond: The History and Prospects of the Institute of European and American Studies (1972-2022)

1 9 7 2-2 0 2 2 e History and Prospects of the Institute of European and American Studies Academia Sinica Years and Beyond 50

1 9 7 2-2 0 2 2 e History and Prospects of the Institute of European and American Studies Academia Sinica Years and Beyond 50

March 12, 2022 marks the 50th Anniversary of the Institute of European and American Studies (IEAS). As a comprehensive research institution, the IEAS has always taken pride in being a “concept laboratory” providing a platform for scholars of various fields with disparate professional knowledge to stimulate the Institute’s research potential and advance its academic accomplishments through intellectual interaction and cooperation. Through cooperation and with support, IEAS research faculty are empowered to realize their professional capabilities and expertise. The commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the IEAS demonstrates the continuity of the Institute’s accumulated academic energy, continuing growth and exploration, and leads to the unveiling of a new model of sustainable development. The IEAS enjoys abundant resources, a free research environment, and rich academic heritage. Since taking over as the director of this Institute, I have adhered to the practices of past leaders and members, offering efficient administrative assistance reflecting the three objectives initiated by President of Academia Sinica James C. Liao: achieving world-class research globally, fulfilling social responsibility on key issues, and recruiting and cultivating outstanding talents. The existing academic system and division of disciplines is largely derived from Industrial Revolution era Europe. Since the United States assumed a dominant global position in the midst of World War II, American modes of thought have affected Taiwanese academics profoundly. Today, in the context of a more fluid global environment, academic reintegration, demarcation, and the emergence of new topics are but a few of the emergent challenges scholars face. To confront emerging challenges, the IEAS needs to diversify further while maintaining the core values of European and American Studies. The IEAS must strategically extend how it approaches research, taking account of academic outlooks, universal values, and global perspectives, to better connect Taiwan with the rest of the world. Consequently, the IEAS must further develop understandings and discussions of the common weal and woe. In terms of research themes, we aim to examine topics especially relevant to European and American Studies, featuring a distinctively Taiwanese perspective that will help distinguish the work from that of other research institutions. With established foundations in Taiwan and an eye to the future, the IEAS will endeavor to shoulder academic responsibility and commitment for reinspecting, relating, and reflecting upon the global order, ideologies, and research, informed by European and American principles. IEAS Director March 1, 2022 Preface

Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s I II In the Beginning: The Origin and Evolution of the Institute of European and American Studies 1 1. The Center for American Studies (1972-1974) 2 2. The Institute of American Culture (1974-1991) 5 3. The Institute of European and American Studies (1991-Present) 8 4. Successive Directors and Their Contributions 10 Laying the Groundwork: The Foundation of Academic Capacity 13 1. Research Facility 13 2. The Library and Its Collections 15

III IV Indelible Accomplishments: Research Performance and Academic Strengths 19 1. Fundamental and Practical Research Topics 19 (1) Cultural Studies 20 (2) Language, Cognition, and Society: Trends in Contemporary Western Philosophy 21 (3) European Union 22 (4) U.S.-Taiwan-China Relations 22 (5) Social Development and Policy in the US and Europe 23 2. Distinguished Research Achievements 24 (1) Researchers Honored with Awards and Project Grants 24 (2) EurAmerica : Excellence in Quality and Quantity 25 (3) Academic Expertise Showcased Through Monographs and Other Publications 26 3. Actively Investing in Various Academic Activities 31 (1) Collaborations with Domestic and International Academic Communities 31 (2) Fulfilling Academic and Social Responsibilities 33 (3) Advocating Comprehensiveness of Professional Knowledge 35 (4) Cultivation of Outstanding Talents 35 Continuous Thriving and Looking Forward to the Future 37 Appendix 39

The Institute of European and American Studies (IEAS) is the only research unit in Academia Sinica devoted to studies of European and American societies as its main research objective. Key research areas of the Institute include literature, history, philosophy, law, political science, and sociology. The Institute currently has 22 full-time research fellows, including two distinguished research fellows, seven research fellows, nine associate research fellows, and four assistant research fellows. There are also one joint-appointed research fellow, seven adjunct research fellows, and four corresponding research fellows (see Appendix I for details). With the objective of planning and conducting prospective and visionary research, the Institute’s research fellows regularly invite scholars and experts from Academia Sinica and beyond to participate in cross-disciplinary exchanges and collaboration; we do so in order to realize the advantages that accrue from the unique characteristics of European and American Studies. The predecessor of the IEAS was the Institute of American Culture (1974-1991); our historical roots can be traced back to the Center for American Studies (1972-1974). Sino-American Conference on Science Cooperation (April 14, 1964, Taipei) I In the Beginning: The Origin and Evolution of the Institute of European and American Studies 50 Years and Beyond: The History and Prospects of the Institute of European and American Studies 1

The Center for American Studies was established to conduct research on matters related to the United States as part of broader area studies. After World War II, the United States was able to capitalize on favorable postwar conditions and opportunities to become the world’s preeminent power. During the subsequent Cold War, the United States assumed leadership of free and democratic countries. Most democratic countries not only followed the military and political leadership of the United States internationally, but endeavored to better understand the cultures of the ascendant power. Taking the United States as the main research object thus become an emerging academic field in its own right. For instance, Japan had already been promoting American Studies as early as 1910. Beginning in the 1950s, countries in Europe, American continents, Asia, and Oceania, and even countries hostile to the United States, including the Soviet Union and its satellites, such as Yugoslavia, invested in American Studies. Although South Korea did not begin to conduct American studies until the 1960s, its academic efforts developed rapidly. In this way, American Studies soon became a major area of study in the field of international relations. In Taiwan, American Studies developed relatively slowly due to a puzzling failure to recognize the crucial role the United States played in the various transformations of the Republic of China. With military support and economic assistance from the United States, the Northern Expedition of 1928 was a success, and eventually victory in the Second Sino-Japanese War was achieved. When the Nationalist Party lost Mainland China to the communists after the Chinese Civil War, the loss of popular support was a major reason for its defeat, but U.S. disappointment in, and subsequent abandonment of the Republican cause was also an important factor. After the R.O.C. government withdrew to Taiwan, its survival owed much to military and economic assistance from the United States. And yet, the concept, “Knowing America, Understanding America,” was seldom taken seriously. The origins of American Studies in Taiwan may be traced to the contributions of the late senior statesman and President of Academia Sinica, Dr. Wang Shi-chieh (1891-1981). As someone with rich experience on foreign affairs, Dr. Wang realized the importance to Taiwan— then an isolated island—of cultivating positive diplomatic relationship with other nations, especially the United States. As President of Academia Sinica, he actively promoted academic cooperation between the Republic of China and the United States. Academia Sinica and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of the United States jointly established “Committees on Sino-American Science Cooperation” in 1964. Although the Committees were affiliated with Academia Sinica, they had to prepare independent budgets. 1. The Center for American Studies 1972-1974 Dr. Wang Shi-chieh In the Beginning: The Origin and Evolution of the Institute of European and American Studies 2

In April 1964, the First Sino-American Conference on Science Cooperation was held in Taipei. Li Chi, Director of the Institute of History and Philology of Academia Sinica, was unable to convince the committees on Sino-American Science Cooperation to incorporate the Humanities and Social Sciences among their project. In February 1965, the Second SinoAmerican Conference on Science Cooperation was convened in Washington, D.C.; Chien Shi-liang, President of National Taiwan University, led the delegation from Taiwan, with Dr. Li serving as a consultant. During the conference, committees on Sino-American Science Cooperation agreed to incorporate the Humanities and Social Sciences into its projects, following an endorsement from Professor John King Fairbank of Harvard University. On June 15, 1966, a four-day “Conference on Sino-American Cooperation in Humanities and Social Sciences” was held in Taipei, chaired by Dr. Wang Shi-chieh. Conference attendees reached ten agreements and undertook to establish separate committees to implement these agreements. After the conference, Dr. Wang convened the Committee on Sino-American Cooperation in Humanities and Social Sciences. It was resolved that a special sub-committee should be set up to that end, and that its chairperson and deputy chairperson would be the chairperson and deputy chairperson of the Committee on Sino-American Science Cooperation. The Committee recruited several committee members and set up an executive committee to take charge of related affairs, with Li Chi serving as the chairperson of the first executive committee and Herbert H. P. Ma as the executive secretary. The venue was located at No. 87, Ningbo West Street, Taipei. Dr. Wang committed his full energies to developing the fields of humanities and social sciences in Taiwan, and was devoted to establishing the Center for American Studies. In December 1969, the “Preparatory Task Force for the Center for American Studies” was established. As the chairperson of the Committee on Sino-American Cooperation, Dr. Wang appointed Liu Chung-hung, Chu Limin, Chu Chien-min, Li Chi-tai, Wang Chi-wu (Dr. Wang’s eldest son), Hsu Cho-yun, and Herbert H. P. Ma as members of the task force, with Liu serving as Convener. The first meeting of the preparatory task force was held on December 15, 1969 and dealt with two draft regulations: (1) Organizational Regulations for the Preparatory Task Force of the Center for American Studies and (2) Organization and Businesses of the Center for American Studies, from which the preparatory task force drew up its objectives. One of the main tasks was to compile unified catalogs of works in the field of American Studies. The preparatory team compiled a preliminary list of books based on approximately 20,000 books on American issues from National Taiwan University, National Chengchi University, United States Information Agency (USIA), and Cardinal Tien Cultural Foundation. This list was distributed to libraries and 50 Years and Beyond: The History and Prospects of the Institute of European and American Studies 3

colleges for verification, and a formal joint card catalog established and stored in the Center for American Studies Library for those interested in re s ea rching Ame r i can i s sue s and wanting to discover where the materials were located. On March 12, 1972, with Dr. Wang as the chairperson, the first meeting of the “Review Committee of the Center for American Studies” c o n v e n e d . Co n s e q u e n t l y, t h e Center for American Studies was formally established, and Chen Chilu, Professor of Anthropology at National Taiwan University, was appointed a full-time research fellow and director of the Center. One of Dr. Chen’s objectives was to actively collaborate on projects undertaken at other academic institutions, such a s the “Bi b l i ogr aphi c Re s ea rch Project of American History” with the Department of History at the Nat ional Taiwan Univers i ty, the “Research on Amer ican Li terary Terminology” with the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures at the National Taiwan University, and the compilation of the “Dictionary of the Library” with the National Central Library. Chang Chung-tung (first from the left) and Wang Chi-wu (second from the left) participated in the preparatory task force for the Center for American Studies (third from the left to right: Cha Liang-chao, Chu Yen, and Chao Pao-hsuan) Manuscript of "Sino-American Cooperation Committee on Humanities and Social Sciences of Academia Sinica's overview of the Center for American Studies", co-authored by Chen Chi-lu and Chu Yen In the Beginning: The Origin and Evolution of the Institute of European and American Studies 4

The Center for American Studies finally gained a place of its own on the Academia Sinica campus when the new building (the present day IEAS Research Building) was inspected on September 5, 1972, and staff and existing library equipment took up occupancy on September 20. In May 1973, the Sino-U.S. Humanities and Social Sciences Cooperation Committee proposed that the Center become an institute formally affiliated with Academia Sinica in order to facilitate closer cooperation with other research institutes in the Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, and to promote area studies in various fields of study. The proposition was approved by both the general meeting of Academia Sinica and the meeting of the Council of Academia Sinica in 1974, and then reported to the Presidential Office of the Republic of China. The new Institute was formally established on July 1, 1974 as the tenth full-fledged institute of Academia Sinica. Chen Chi-lu was appointed its first director. It is generally accepted that Dr. Chen contributed to the creation and foundation of the Institute of American Culture. While serving as the Director of the Center for American Studies, Dr. Chen organized “The First Regional American Studies Seminar of East Asia”, entitled, “Cultural and Diplomatic Relations between the United States and East Asia Countries after WWII”. Convened on July 2, 1973, the seminar was the first large-scale international conference on American Studies in Taiwan. It was well received and widely discussed in the local academic communities. Chu Yen assumed the second directorship of the Institute of American Culture on July 1, 1977. Always actively recruiting researchers and acting as a role model, Dr. Chu made tremendous contributions and laid a solid foundation for the future development of the Institute. When recruiting researchers or staff, Dr. Chu always stuck to his principle: “Capability is the only condition, and connections are to be disregarded;” an important principle that has been observed by all succeeding directors. On July 1, 1983, Sun Tung-hsun succeeded as the third director of the Institute of American Culture. Dr. Sun continued to recruit research members and expand the Institute. By the end of Dr. Sun’s two terms of service, the number of research members at the Institute had nearly doubled to 32. On July 1, 1989, after consulting with all research members and 2. The Institute of American Culture 1974-1991 Chien Shi-liang (second from the left) and Wang Shi-chieh (third from the left) at the groundbreaking for the Center for American Studies, September 15, 1971 (Provided by Wang Chiu-hwa) 50 Years and Beyond: The History and Prospects of the Institute of European and American Studies 5

holding a non-binding vote, President Wu Ta-you of Academia Sinica appointed Wei Liang-tsai, the then Deputy Director, as the new director of the Institute. During this stage in the development of the Institute, there were many events worth remembering. Most importantly, on December 16, 1978, President Jimmy Carter of the United States announced the severance of diplomatic relations with the Republic of China. When Director Chu discussed the matter with a research member at the library on the same day, in his patriotism and moral outrage, was moved to tears. President Chien Shi-liang of Academia Sinica requested that the Institute draft a protest letter, in English, to be handed over to the U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Warren Christopher, who was in Taiwan on behalf of the Carter Administration to negotiate the necessary arrangements following the severance of ties. As soon as the letter was drafted, President Chien assembled directors of all the institutes of Academia Sinica to discuss its contents. Once finalized and translated into Chinese by Lee Yu-cheng, the letter was signed by President Chien and all the directors. Dr. Chu and Dr. Wei Liang-tsai, personally delivered the letter to the Grand Hotel, where Mr. Christopher was staying. The protest letter was not only received by the representatives of our government and forwarded to their American counterparts, but also sent to every Senator in the U.S. Congress. In addition, it was published in numerous local and foreign newspapers in both Chinese and English. This was the first time that the Institute had acted to preserve the dignity of the country. The Institute of American Culture has intensively cultivated and promoted American research talents in Taiwan. As the Institute of American Culture was devoted to American Studies and encompassed numerous and diversified disciplines, it was relatively more difficult to recruit research members in comparison with the more specialized institutes of the Humanities and Social Sciences at Academia Sinica. Although the Institute planned to train its own researchers, it was difficult to implement this policy given a lack of financial resources. Not until the late 1970s, when the economy began to pick up speed in Taiwan did the situation begin to improve with significant increases in governmental budgets for educational and cultural programs. Academia Sinica, as the most prestigious research institute of the country, naturally benefited as well. In mid-1979, the Academia Sinica Committee of Review and Evaluation passed a resolution requesting that “all affiliated institutes prepare and draft five-year development plans that would, upon approval, be submitted to the Office of the President and transferred to the Executive Yuan.” In January 1980, the Executive Yuan approved the increased expenditures required for these five-year development plans. NT$150 million was earmarked for Academia Sinica in the budget for the 1981 fiscal year, funds for which the institution could apply each year thereafter. Budgets increased in subsequent years, so that the Institute was able to implement its plans to train junior research members. In the Beginning: The Origin and Evolution of the Institute of European and American Studies 6

During the directorships of Dr. Chu and successive directors, numerous junior research assistants and assistant research fellows received financial support from the National Science Council of the Executive Yuan, or the Institute itself, to pursue Ph. D. degrees at local or foreign universities, after which they returned to serve at the Institute. After Lin Chengyi was appointed Director of the Institute, and the Institute expanded to become the Institute of European and American Studies, there was an increase in the number of applicants seeking a position at the Institute, and the training program, being no longer necessary, was terminated. Furthermore, with the formal establishment of the Institute of American Culture, in the late 1970s, many local scholars interested in American Studies noted that our compatriots’ understanding of the United States was limited and that this situation did not serve the nation well. Therefore, they started to organize an association to engage in American Studies. On January 22, 1978, the Association of American Studies was formally set up. The founding members are from different domestic academic institutions such as Chen Chi-lu, Herbert H. P. Ma, Chu Limin, Hou Chien, Chi Pan-yuan, Chu Yen, Lin Yao-fu, Sun Tun-hsun, Chang Chung-tung, Tien Wei-hsin, and Yu Yuh-chao. Because the Institute of American Culture was relatively abundant in research manpower and resources, not only did the Institute assume a leadership position on the basis of its academic performance, but also actively invested in personnel support. The early chairmen of the Association of American Studies—Chen Chilu, Chu Yen, Sun Tun-hsun, Herbert H. P. Ma, Tien Wei-hsin, Yu Yuh-chao, and Wei Liang-tsai— were all fulltime or part-time research fellows affiliated with the Institute of American Culture at the time, and they made decisive contributions to the development of domestic American research. (left) Standing beside the IEAS Library, this commemorative stone marks the inauguration of the Center for American Studies (right) The Chinese version of the protest letter ( United Daily News , December 29, 1978, p.3) 50 Years and Beyond: The History and Prospects of the Institute of European and American Studies 7

The Institute of American Culture was renamed the Institute of European and American Studies (IEAS) during Dr. Wei Liang-tsai’s term as the director. In April 1990, as the Legislative Yuan held its eighth meeting of the 85th session of the sixth term, Legislator Chang Chih-min tabled a written interpellation urging Academia Sinica to establish an institute to research on all aspects of Europe, enhancing the understanding of the Taiwanese people, and providing information and suggestions for the government to implement its policies. Subsequently, the Executive Yuan forwarded the opinion to Academia Sinica. On June 30, 1990, after the first meeting of the 14th Council of Academia Sinica, it was decided to appoint five members to review the proposal: Li Kuo-ting, Chiang Sho-chieh, Hsia Han-min, Lee Chung-tao, and Wei Liang-tsai, as the chairperson. 3. The Institute of European and American Studies 1991-Present In the Beginning: The Origin and Evolution of the Institute of European and American Studies 8

After many consultations and exchanges with domestic scholars, it became evident that it was indeed necessary to promote an understanding of Europe and establish research programs associated with European Studies. During the second meeting of the 14th Council of Academia Sinica on December 22, 1990, the proposal was approved to restructure the Institute of American Culture to include European Studies and change its name to the “Institute of European and American Studies”. Later, Academia Sinica sent the proposal to the Secretary General of the Office of the President of the R.O.C. for approval and reported to the Third Bureau of Office of the President for the reassignment of the agency seal and chops. On August 3, 1991, the Institute of American Culture officially changed its name to the Institute of European and American Studies, reappointing Wei Liang-tsai as its first director. In hopes of encouraging European Studies, the director, deputy director, and chiefs of the three research divisions, Humanities; Sociology and Economics; and Law and Political Science, organized a European Studies preparatory task force, with Chu Yen invited to serve as an advisor and recruit new research members in the related fields with the assistance of the Advisory Committee of the Institute. The formal establishment of the IEAS is not only a systemic change, but a symbol of the expansion of research topics in academic research. Responding to the inseparable relationship between the various cultural systems of the United States and Europe, under the umbrella term of “European and American”, research colleagues had more liberty and flexibility to pursue their research interests; as the faculty could not be expanded immediately, cooperation between IEAS research fellows and scholars outside the Institute and Academia Sinca increased meticulously. On the academic side, the IEAS had taken account of researchers’ expertise and selected topics for in-depth study relating to European and American history, philosophy, literature, culture, society, and legal and political structures to synchronously extend its basic research and systemic concern with current affairs. At the same time, responding to concerns on specific substantive issues related to European and American international organizations and relations, the Institute has conducted systemic academic research and analysis, and encouraged colleagues to collaborate across disciplines. Building on the existing three research divisions (Humanities; Sociology and Economics; and Law and Political Science), five thematic research projects were developed: Cultural Studies; Language, Cognition, and Society: Trends in Contemporary Western Philosophy; European Union; U.S.-Taiwan-China Relations; and Social Development and Policy in the US and Europe. 50 Years and Beyond: The History and Prospects of the Institute of European and American Studies 9

After passing through planning, foundational, recruiting, and research strengthening phases, the IEAS entered into a steady and mature development phase. Then, in 2003, Academia Sinica was promoting large-scale organizational reform, and the IEAS faced the possibility of being downgraded to a research center. After a series of debates, much persuasion on the part of our research colleagues, and strenuous negotiations between then IEAS Director Dr. Lee Yucheng and Academia Sinica President Dr. Yuan T. Lee, the Institute was able to continue along the established research trajectory, and academic and administrative reforms in other directions. The IEAS has been more actively expanding research topics, extending academic attention to East Asia and Southeast Asia, establishing research networks with scholars and experts in related fields, and gradually adding academic discourses on the construction of Asia-Pacific perspectives in fundamental and practical research. At the same time, the IEAS is also actively recruiting outstanding talents. During the Institute of American Culture years, the quota for research fellows was 40. Before reaching the ideal research staffing levels, the Institute was restructured to become the IEAS, which expanded its staffing levels to include European Studies. With successive directors (see Appendix II for details) working tirelessly to expand the recruitment of talents and requesting that Academia Sinica increase the quota for hiring new research fellows, between August 2012 and July 2018, a total of seven new researchers joined the Institute. In addition, to enable the new colleagues could devote themselves fully to research, the directors strove to acquire such subsidies as the Special Outstanding Talent Award of the Ministry of Science and Technology (currently the Research Subsidy Incentives of the Ministry of Science and Technology) and the Recruitment and Retention of Special Outstanding Talent Award of Academia Sinica. In recent years, the IEAS has been more concerned with elevating the voices of young research colleagues, listening to their research ideas and plans, and providing support with administrative resources within reasonable limits. The directors have also encouraged colleagues to submit forth new ideas to amend laws and regulations on the existing system of organization through open communication and consensus seeking within the Institute. For instance, to make up for placing overly much emphasis on recruiting researchers by disciplines in the past, the IEAS has moved toward enhancing the significance and dominance of each thematic research project, and modifying the procedures for hiring talents in order to keep up with the times. The methodology for recruiting research fellows, doctoral candidates, postdoctoral fellows, visiting scholars, and the planning of academic conferences must be carefully devised and discussed by members of the various thematic research projects. Specifically, when coordinating the recruitment of research fellows, job announcements and selection of candidates must reflect 4. Successive Directors and Their Contributions In the Beginning: The Origin and Evolution of the Institute of European and American Studies 10

the research directions and needs of the thematic research projects, and before entering the recruitment review process, the final list of candidates must be approved by the Institute’s Academic Review Committee. Academics and administration make up the two elemental sides of a research institution, with academics pushing research forward while administration provides assistance and support. Therefore, past directors of the IEAS have encouraged administrative colleagues to uphold the spirit of “service and willingness to improve” when promoting administrative affairs, and respecting and meeting the academic needs of researchers and thematic research projects by maximizing support, flexibility and making the best possible use of limited budgets. The IEAS is constantly reforming the practices of its administrative team to work more efficiently, recruiting IT professionals to establish solid information security management systems, and strengthening the IEAS website to promote the various endeavors. Moreover, through monthly core meetings (formerly known as administrative briefings) and receiving the input of colleagues in the administrative office, the IEAS Library, and IT office, the director fine-tunes various administrative measures as needed in order to strengthen communication between administrative colleagues. With the professional support and combined knowledge of the administrative staff, the director is given the discretion to make reasonable judgments and decisions consistent with administrative procedures. Finally, to implement the spirit of environmental protection, the Institute has been going green by actively promoting paperless conferences, reducing the volume of paper distributed during academic conferences, and providing tablets as the main reading device. A QR code has also been added to the cover of the EurAmerica quarterly journal to reduce the number of copies that need to be printed. In order to improve the morale of the contract-based staff, the IEAS has also included contract-based administrative assistants as candidates of “Employees of Excellent Job Performance” to improve fairness and work efficiency, as well as the overall sense of belonging on the administrative team. Since 2012, the IEAS has won first place in the administrative and technical personnel group performance evaluation in the Division of Humanities and Social Sciences of the Academia Sinica for three consecutive years. 50 Years and Beyond: The History and Prospects of the Institute of European and American Studies 11

It is commonly accepted that the environment plays a prominent role in inspiring people, both mentally and spiritually, and so past directors of the IEAS have recognized the importance of creating an excellent environment. Beginning 2012, the Institute gradually upgraded equipment in the research building and the IEAS Library, thus: replacing the central air conditioning; renovating the sanitary facilities; adding nursing rooms; procuring blood pressure monitors and dechlorinating water dispensers; and fully implementing food waste disposal and trash recycling. On the other hand, the Institute is actively working to promote the digitizing of the Library yearly by reducing subscriptions to back issues of printed journals, increasing purchases of electronic journals and e-books, and creating Wi-Fi Internet access for the Library to facilitate e-readers. Additionally, to balance the aesthetics and architectural spirit of our facilities, the IEAS has completed renovations of the Library to resolve the long-term roof leakage problem. The IEAS is well-known in Academia Sinica as a showcase of natural beauty and environmental harmony. Due to the beautiful environment, the conference room on the first floor of the research building was selected as the venue to host review meetings of the first and second Tang Awards. Many original paintings presented by the former director, Dr. Sheu Jia-you, are on display on various floors of the research building, adding to the cultural atmosphere. On the other hand, in addition to seasonal flowers and plants displayed on the balconies of each floor, beginning 2019, with the joint efforts of research colleagues and assistants, a rooftop farm has been constructed on the top floor of the research building, which creates an environment wherein research colleagues can practice transcultural agro-responses to climate change, and which provides a channel for all participants to sooth body and mind, and for interpersonal communication. The handover ceremony of IEAS directorship in 2018 In the Beginning: The Origin and Evolution of the Institute of European and American Studies 12

1. Research Facility After the Center for American Studies was formally established, Dr. Wang began to raise funds, with NT$10 million being raised for the construction of the library. The building site was located next to the old building of the Institute of History and Philology, which was the only space available on Academia Sinica campus, consisting of three stories and a basement: the offices of the “Committee on Sino-American Cooperation in Humanities and Social Sciences” and Center for American Studies, conference rooms, research rooms, and a lecture hall with a capacity of 300 people on the first floor; the library and reading rooms on the second floor; stacks on the third floor. Aside from the stacks in the library, there were only eight research rooms. Due to the increase in personnel, even with the addition of some space from the library, the available space remained insufficient. Under the five-year development plans of Academia Sinica, the Institute cooperated with the Institute of Modern History to build a three-story research building beginning August 1980. The Jin-Mei Building, located across from the library’s current site, was completed in July 1981. The building is approximately 1,650 square meters, with its space divided into 33 research rooms, three conference rooms of various sizes, and a basement. The foundation of the Jin-Mei Building was originally a riverbank, and with insufficient time allotted for the soil to settle, cracks appeared frequently on the walls of the main structure. A structural appraisal revealed that the building required reinforcement to address safety concerns. In 1999, after the 921 Earthquake, the safety of the building became an even greater concern. The Institute raised funds from enterprises and completed repair work in 2001. Currently, the third floor of the Jin-Mei Building is reserved for the exclusive use by the Lingnan Fine Arts Museum, to display collections of the Lingnan School donated from famous artist and calligrapher Au Ho-nien. In order to ensure a safe research environment and to accommodate newly recruited research fellows, the Institute submitted a request to Academia Sinica to construct a new research building, which was eventually approved, and a part of the lot belonging to the Institute of History and (up) The first floor reception area of the IEAS research building; (down) The first floor lobby of the IEAS research building IILaying the Groundwork: The Foundation of Academic Capacity 13 50 Years and Beyond: The History and Prospects of the Institute of European and American Studies

Philology was allocated to the Institute for the construction of the new building. However, the allotted budget was insufficient to attract bids from developers. Not until June 30, 1989, the last day of Dr. Sun Tung-hsun’s directorship, was the project finally contracted out. The new research building was completed in early 1991 and inaugurated in April 1992. It contributed 4,372 square meters, containing 62 research rooms, four conference rooms in various sizes, and a basement, to the Institute’s use, each part being allocated to a different purpose. The fourth floor conference room of the IEAS research building The Jin-Mei Building The IEAS: the research building on the left; the IEAS Library on the right Laying the Groundwork: The Foundation of Academic Capacity 14

2. The Library and Its Collections The construction of the library was completed in September 1972, designed by Dr. Wang Shi-chieh’s second daughter, Wang Chiu-hwa. Ms. Wang, a renowned architect, devoted herself to designing the library and returned to Taiwan several times during its construction, consulting with Dr. Wang about the details of the building and amending the design where necessary. Dr. Wang was determined that the building be completed on time, and personally visited and inspected the building site several times. On April 21, 1981, Dr. Wang, a senior statesman of the Republic of China, former President of Academia Sinica, promoter of American Studies, and founder of the Institute of American Culture, passed away at the age of ninety. In 1982, a year after his passing, the Institute held a memorial service to honor Dr. Wang. To commemorate Dr. Wang’s contributions to our Institute, the library was named the Wang Shi-chieh Memorial Building. At the inaugural ceremony, President Chien Shi-liang of Academia Sinica and Director Chu Yen of the Institute unveiled a bronze bust sculpture in Dr. Wang’s honor. The building itself, while occupying a rather modest footprint, proved a unique exemplar of postwar Taiwanese architecture. The library’s exterior has several characteristics of modernism, such as les pilotis (the pilotis), la fenêtre-bandeau (the ribbon window), la façade libre (the free façade), minimal ornaments, form follows the function, etc. With simple means and simple building materials, the library incorporates the building itself and its natural surroundings, sunlight and rain, The first floor of the IEAS Library The first floor reading area of the IEAS Library Father and daughter: Wang Chiuhwa (left) and Wang Shi-chieh (Provided by Wang Chiu-hwa) 15 50 Years and Beyond: The History and Prospects of the Institute of European and American Studies

that has both ecological characteristics and historical significance that are similar to that of two wellknown modernist buildings, the Villa Savoye in France and Fallingwater in the United States. It is a classic living teaching material for case studies of green buildings. For these reasons, the library is frequently visited by teachers and students from the departments of architecture of local universities and colleges. Its uniqueness is vividly described in the inscription in a glass notice board alongside its main entrance: The Library of the Institute of European and American Studies is the first generation building after World War II. Its style is simple and straightforward. It merges the quietness and harmony into an overall environment. The building is without any ornate and outstanding decoration, but it shows calmness and clearness and is accessible to the people. It is rainy and humid in Nankang, Taipei. Moreover, the foundation of this library was low and constantly threatened by flooding. The building therefore is supported by pillars and reinforced walls, and yet makes use of natural light and shade. This not only lessens the risk of flooding and enhances airflow, but also creates a comfortable space that breathes and is full of life. Rich in modernist characteristics and built by using eco-friendly techniques, this building has been honored as one of the best buildings of the 1970s and selected as one of the 30 buildings representative of the postwar period in Taiwan. As the library is the foundation for conducting high-quality research work, Dr. Wang once instructed: “The primary task of the promotion of American Studies weighs heavily on the collection of books and materials, and therefore, the funding and expenses of the library should be lenient.” Consequently, great efforts had been made to enrich the library holdings. During the inaugural year of the Center for American Studies, the budget for building the library’s collections was set at NT$1.2 million, and increased to NT$1.83 million the next fiscal year. In addition to its own purchases, the Center also received donations of books from abroad. Most notably, at the end of 1970, there were a series of anti-American riots in New Delhi, India, and the U.S. government decided to close the United States Information Service (USIS) and library there. With the tireless efforts of Mr. Wang Chi-wu, all of these nearly 20,000 books were donated to the Center for American Studies. Furthermore, the Asia Foundation also donated a number of books. These were the initial “capital” of the Center for American Studies that significantly enriched the library. The first floor stacks of the IEAS Library: rebuilt from the auditorium, retaining straight beams and large lattice spans with sound-absorbing ceiling Laying the Groundwork: The Foundation of Academic Capacity 16

The IEAS Library Dr. Wang invited Shen Pao-huan, an expert in Library Science, to assist the Center for American Studies in the organization of the library. Under Dr. Shen’s assistance, the library procurement, cataloging, and other businesses were smoothly promoted and achieved steady growth. Due to a tremendous increase in the collections of the library, space grew increasingly limited. Therefore, the administration launched a plan to renovate the auditorium to provide more room for the stacks. Over the objections of the original architect, Wang Chiu-hwa, the pressing need for more space was allowed to direct the usage of space. Thus, new stacks occupied three-stories above ground and the basement, providing enough room for an expanding book collection. In order to alleviate the pressure of insufficient collection space and reserve space to purchase new books, beginning 2014, some of the bound volumes of back issues have been replaced by electronic journals that are not restricted by space, and provide more research convenience and advantage. Unfortunately, on September 17, 2001, Typhoon Nari hit Taiwan, the nearby Si-fen Creek flooded, and more than 33,000 volumes of books, manuscripts, and periodicals in the basement stacks were destroyed. A large number of these were rare history books published a hundred year ago or out-of-print materials. The Institute’s collection of books on American history had been one of the best in Taiwan. For domestic scholars specializing in American history, this was a devastating loss that can never be made up. Today, the library houses a large collection of books, journals, newspapers, microform materials, discs, databases, etc. on European and American literatures, history, philosophy, education, political science, law, sociology, and economics. The majority of the contents are books, followed by microform materials, and bound volumes of back issues. As of December 2021, the library holds a collection of 141,219 volumes in Western languages, 6,816 volumes in Chinese, 1,304 journals in Western languages (including 283 electronic journals), 200 journals in Chinese, two journals in Japanese, 36,635 volumes of bound journals, six newspapers, microform materials (5,587 microfilms; 55,768 microfiches) 1,163 plain text CDs, 152 audio CDs, 895 audio tapes, 261 The second floor reading area of the IEAS Library 17 50 Years and Beyond: The History and Prospects of the Institute of European and American Studies

video tapes, 996 DVDs, 141 multimedia materials, 689 e-books, 25 databases, and a small number of maps. In addition, the computer room is equipped with a variety of advanced software and hardware equipment, data, and connections, which are updated frequently and regularly in order to address the needs of the researchers. Collections of the IEAS Library The diamond-shaped room on the first floor on the west side of the IEAS Library: the windows open to the north for good lighting and sun protection The east side of the IEAS Library: the left side is the central courtyard, and the right side features a stilt-house design Laying the Groundwork: The Foundation of Academic Capacity 18

1. Fundamental and Practical Research Topics The IEAS aims to study the past, present, and future of Western cultures and civilizations via various thematic research projects. Unlike other research units in the Humanities and Social Sciences at Academia Sinica, which focus on a single academic discipline, the academic research of the IEAS is characterized by interdisciplinary and collective collaboration, and emphasizes both theory and practice. In this way, the Institute has established a unique academic model and become the leading European and American research base in Asia. In June 1988, the IEAS formally established three major research divisions: Humanities; Sociology and Economics; and Law and Political Science. The research areas of the Humanities Division included literature, philosophy, and history. The research subjects focused mainly on underprivileged ethnic literature in Europe and the United States, cultural translation, philosophy of mind and language, English and American literature, American history, American women’s history, modern history of Germany, and history of Sino-American relations. The research focus of the Sociology and Economics Division included the characteristics and changes of European and American societies and economies, globalization and its impact, European and American social policies, educational theories and developments and the cultural issues derived from them, while comparing the similarities and differences between Taiwan, European, and American societies. The research focus of the Law and Political Science Division mainly included Sino-American relations, the United States and European governments, and European and American public policies that involved labor, society, family, women’s employment, government reengineering, oceans, fisheries, and environmental protection. The division also focused on how to observe the development of the European Union from legal and political perspectives, and studied the organization and operation of the EU, the theory and model of EU integration, human rights protection, European Central Bank, the Euro and the European Monetary Union, the expansion of the EU, and the development of the EU constitution. On September 6 and 13, 1997, the IEAS discussed in detail the opinions of the “Humanities Division Deliberation Report” of Academia Sinica, and decided to revise the content of the Institute’s medium and long-term development plan. The IEAS reviewed the current status of interactions among the three research divisions, the existing research priorities, future research areas, and research topics, and consequently, devised a well-constructed plan for developing thematic research projects to provide a long-term research direction for the academic development of the entire Institute. Since 2003, in order to coordinate with Academia Sinica’s organizational adjustment policy, the IEAS abolished the three research divisions, Humanities; Sociology and Economics; and Law and Political Science, and shifted its research focus to six thematic research projects and individual projects. Among the six projects, “Research on Globalization and Social Changes in Europe and the United States” was terminated due to the restructuring of its members and merging into other projects. Since then, although the remaining thematic research projects have undergone changes in members and IIIIndelible Accomplishments: Research Performance and Academic Strengths 19 50 Years and Beyond: The History and Prospects of the Institute of European and American Studies

naming, they have maintained the five collective and cross-disciplinary themes. To this day, the five thematic research projects have accumulated considerable research accomplishments. (1)Cultural Studies Cultural Studies originated in Britain in the 1950s, in the aftermath of the Second World War, new issues arose in British society, including youth popular culture, immigration issues, and cultural production by women and the working class. When engaging the aforementioned subjects with the theories and methods of traditional disciplines proved problematic, Cultural Studies emerged to fill the void. Early Cultural Studies focused beyond deep-rooted traditional disciplinary methods, and its seminal influences came from Antonio Gramsci, Louis Althusser, and the Frankfurt School. Over 40 to 50 years of development, Cultural Studies gradually established its own unique field, and has become an internationally prominent research area, exerting influence in different disciplines and regions. In 1994, the IEAS hosted a conference on “Cultural Studies: History and Theory”, as a preliminary step to exploring the historical development and theoretical issues of Cultural Studies. In view of the growing influence of this emerging intellectual movement, the Institute formed the thematic research project: “Cultural Studies” in December 1998, and began inviting researchers of different disciplines within the IEAS to join the thematic research project. In addition to the original researchers specialized in literature, researchers from other disciplines such as sociology, art history, and political science soon joined. This multidisciplinary formation exemplifies both the strength of the Institute and the malleable and multifaceted character of the field. Our aim is to engage in extensive interdisciplinary analyses, both individually and collectively, of seven key research issues of our time—post 9-11 research on British and American novels; a century of foreign language studies in Taiwan; cultural Cold War studies; art and fashion; American environmental literature and culture; legal and cultural studies; and neoliberal criticism—and thereby expand our academic vision and advance our research as we strive for intellectual originality and excellence. The members of this thematic research project have always adhered to an academically-rooted attitude, introducing new topics and exploring new fields through academic conferences, workshops, lectures, and publications. From the early topics on “cultural identity”, “politics of representation”, “invention of tradition”, “remapping Chinese America”, “negotiating the past”, to topics examining post-colonial legacies such as “in the shadows of empires”, or reflecting on the cruelty and trauma war has inflicted on Asian ethnic groups such as “war memories”, and finally, “food safety”. In terms of art history, aside from introducing new research topics to Taiwan’s art history circles, this thematic research project also promotes interdisciplinary dialogue among domestic art-related disciplines. Discussion of topics can range from traumatic politics, and women’s art, to museum research. The methodology spans feminism and the social sciences, all of which are indispensable elements of domestic art history research. In the future, this thematic research project is intended to redefine the significance of European Indelible Accomplishments: Research Performance and Academic Strengths 20