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more conservative stance after changing hands in 1900

(Gifford & Seidman, 1988: 134; Kershner, 2010: 100; Platt,

1998: 736). Like Crawford’s former employer, the



also underwent changes in policy during the long years

of its publication: from anti-Catholic in the late eighteenth

century to pro-Catholic and supportive of O’Connell during

the mid-1800s, to finally abandoning Parnell and falling with

him at the turn of the century (Herr, 1986: 69-70; Kershner,

2010: 99). The political inconsistency of Irish journalism is

evident in the publishers employing Crawford as well as

Crawford himself, who leaves the


at the promise

of advancement, and will likely leave the


if he sniffs

an even more promising position. Having Crawford in mind,

Bloom comments on the pressmen in general:

Funny the way those newspaper men veer about when

they get wind of a new opening. Weathercocks. Hot

and cold in the same breath. Wouldn’t know which to

believe. One story good till you hear the next. Go for

one another baldheaded in the papers and then all

blows over. Hail fellow well met the next moment.

(Joyce, 1986: 103)

The pressmen look for, in a word, profit, unconcerned with

consistency and reliability; their changeability renders them

untrustworthy. The journalists-as-intellectuals who act as the

thinking and organizing element of the people and direct their

ideas and aspirations are, ironically, directed by trends. They

follow, instead of leading, the public; embrace, rather than

scorn, material profit. They may still perform a public role, but

are no longer independently representative figures with a

standpoint of their own, nor do they speak as the conscience of

the people. It is ironic that Crawford’s expectations of

advancement probably shade into anxiety, if not regret. After

rising along with Parnell and reaching its heights of influence

in the late nineteenth century, the


began to decline;