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Stephen’s birth. Although editor of a major (though steadily

declining) newspaper, Crawford cannot even correctly identify

the year of a crucial event in modern Irish history. His

incompetence bespeaks the perceptible decline of the


in 1904. Shortly after making his appearance in the episode, in

fact, Crawford confuses fantasy and history. He bursts out all

of a sudden: “North Cork militia! . . . We won every time!

North Cork and Spanish officers!” (105). When Ned Lambert

asks where that was, the editor shouts, “In Ohio!” (105).

Crawford’s information is simply dubious. The North Cork

Militia was loyal to the English ruler, not the nationalists, in

the Rebellion of 1798. It suffered defeat in every battle rather

than having “won every time.” The mention of Spanish officers

and Ohio can only be baffling: the battles had nothing to do

with either. Don Gifford and Robert J. Seidman suggest that

Crawford may have confused the North Cork Militia with the

Irish Brigade, which did distinguish itself in battles and was

commanded by officers of Spanish-Irish descent (1988: 135).

Crawford’s “mad historical confusions,” Platt remarks, “have

the rousing tone of radical discourse but . . . in content

hopelessly conflate centuries, allegiances, and failures with

victories”; these confusions, as Platt sees them, are “[p]erhaps

the most poignant sign of the times” (1998: 743). Most

poignant is the fact that these “mad historical confusions” are

made by the editor of a major newspaper responsible for

inspiring and directing the people in troubled times.

Crawford is not the only editor in “Aeolus.” Before his

encounter with the editor of the evening daily, Bloom catches a

glimpse of William Brayden, a barrister and the actual editor of

the morning daily, the

Freeman’s Journal


a stately figure entered between the newsboards of


Weekly Freeman and National Press

and the

Freeman’s Journal and National Press

. . . . It passed

statelily up the staircase, steered by an umbrella, a