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operational logics. While the design of individual institutions

doubtlessly has a direct bearing on the performance of the EU, the

democratic deficit also must be understood from the perspective of

changed inter-institutional relations, and domestic political

institutions must be considered a part of the equation. Such

inter-institutional dynamics are not easily captured in works

focusing on individual institutions.

The Treaty of Lisbon is yet another example of Europe’s

efforts to tackle the democratic deficit, but one which overlooks

the impact of altered inter-institutional dynamics on democracy. It

is from this critical perspective that this article compares the

situation before and after the Treaty of Lisbon. Although the

article places great emphasis on inter-institutional relations, the

discussion will follow the Treaty taxonomy and consider the

individual institutions in turn. While the immediate focus of each

section is on the particular institution, the overall discussion is

informed by inter-institutional relations, with the contradiction

between the reality and the belief that double-representation will

result in better representation being the underlying concern. Hence,

while a powerless EP was seen as a problem for European-level

democracy, an empowered EP could be just as much a problem

when viewed from a broader picture. According to the

double-representation logic, this shortcoming could be

compensated by national executives’ ability to act as gatekeepers of

national interests under the watchful eyes of national parliaments,

which were recently empowered to probe deeper into EU affairs.

As this article will demonstrate, however, these expectations can

hardly be materialized under the Treaty of Lisbon.

According to the new Title of the Treaty of Lisbon on

“Provisions on Democratic Principles” (Title II TEU), “(t)he

functioning of the Union shall be founded on representative

democracy. Citizens are directly represented at Union level in the

European Parliament. Member States are represented in the

European Council by their Heads of State or Government and in