Faerman, 2008; Emerson & Nabatchi, 2015; Emerson,
Nabatchi, & Balogh, 2012; Fleishman, 2009; Gazley, 2008;
Kapucu, Garayev, & Wang, 2013; McGuire & Silvia, 2010;
Pfeffer & Salancik, 2003; Somers & Svara, 2006; Thomson &
Perry, 2006). However, O’Toole (1997) reminds public
administration scholars to also pay attention to network types
and their variations. If selecting collaboration types is a strategic
action to be taken by a local government to maximize its diverse
advantages, one may reasonably assume that the drivers behind
each type of collaboration maybe different.
To test the likelihood of collaboration in different network
types, this study proposes a framework that illustrates the
drivers of three types of collaboration in local EM in the United
States: vertical collaboration, horizontal-interlocal collabo-
ration, and horizontal-intersectoral collaboration. The empirical
analysis is based on qualitative data collected from interviews
with emergency mangers from Florida counties and cities in
answer the following research questions: (1) What factors drive
local governments to collaborate vertically and horizontally in
local EM? Are there different rationales behind each type of
collaboration? and (2) How are the different types of
collaboration conducted in local EM?
II. The History of Emergency Management
in the United States
Ward and Wamsley (2007) chronicle the history of U.S.
EM development and point out that efforts made by the U.S.
federal government to assist communities affected by natural
disasters can be traced back to the 1800s. However, at that time,
the federal government had limited involvement, and neighbors,
religious groups, and civic communities were expected to take
more responsibility than the federal government.