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collaborative activities in both vertical and horizontal

contexts, explore county and city managers’ rationales

behind each type of collaboration, and examine the

influences of selected drivers in the theoretical framework.

The findings show that for local governments, seeking

resources and training opportunities can explain a large

proportion of why they seek vertical collaboration.

However, in horizontal collaboration, local governments

go beyond resource- seeking to also providing assistance

to their governmental and non-governmental partners.

Horizontal collaboration is more common and more

popular than vertical collaboration. In sum, this study

helps us gain a theoretical and practical understanding of

local emergency management in the United States.

Key Words:

local emergency management, Florida

county and city, vertical and horizontal

collaborations, emergency manager