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neighboring municipalities and local communities by organizing

meetings and speaking for the small municipalities when they

need to communicate with the county. When the big cities

successfully obtain grants from the federal government, they

usually serve as the funding-administrator for all other

municipalities in that area and distribute the funds based on the

needs or training in each municipality.

Sharing information and intelligence is another reason why

local governments collaborate with each other. Understanding

each other’s positions and making sure that everyone stays on

the same page are critical to the success of collaboration and EM

itself (ID5 & ID14).

Finally, many local EM directors indicate that they

collaborate with neighboring counties or municipalities because

of shared commonalities and similar risks. Put differently, for

local governments, community attributes seriously influence

who they should collaborate with. A county EM director stated

the following:

So I collaborate horizontally with my partner which is

south of me because we share a lot of emergency

management commonalities. When it comes to an

emergency, we’re going to deal with urban fire

issues, . . . or Hazmat issues. (ID12)

C. Activities and Rationales for Horizontal-

Intersectoral Collaboration

In the horizontal context, local governments not only

collaborate with other local governments but also work closely

with private companies and local businesses. For example, when

an Emergency Operation Center (EOC) is activated,

representatives from utility companies, telecom companies,

infrastructure providers, and local chambers of commerce or

economic development councils are seated on the EOC to