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examining the effects of household composition, the market

income poverty,

and social welfare on youth poverty. Following

the typologies of welfare regimes proposed by Esping Andersen

(1990, 1999) and other scholars (e.g., Ferrera, 1996; Holiday &

Wilding, 2003), the countries are grouped into six welfare regimes:

social democratic (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway),

conservative (Austria, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the

Netherlands, Switzerland), liberal (Australia, Canada, Ireland, the

UK, the US), Southern European (Spain), post-socialist (Czech

Republic, Poland, Slovenia), and East Asian (Japan, South Korea,

and Taiwan). As this study focuses on youth poverty, respondents

aged between 18 and 29 are selected. The respondents who did not

disclose information on gross income, taxes, compulsory

contributions, and social transfers, are excluded from the analysis.

More detailed information on missing data is shown in Appendix A.

Analytic samples are weighted to reflect the total population of

each country.

The unweighted sample size ranges from 1,279 in

Ireland to 75,700 in Norway.

A. Poverty Line and Equivalence Scale

Following the convention of international studies on poverty

(e.g., LIS, OECD), this study uses a relative poverty approach to

generate a specific poverty standard for each country. The poverty

line is defined as income below 50% of the net median equivalized

disposable household income. The net disposable income is the

total household income after taxes and after social transfers.



equivalence scale of power 0.5, or the square root of the number

of household members, is used to equate incomes for households

of different sizes, reflecting economies of scale and consumption

(OECD, 2012). Previous studies have used a wide range of


Net disposable income consists of household earnings, cash property income,

occupational pensions, social transfers, private transfers, and other cash income

and excludes taxes, compulsory contributions, and non-cash benefits.