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shown in Appendix C.

Finally, hypothesis testing is conducted to evaluate whether

the three effects contributing to the differences in poverty between

Taiwan and another country are statistically significant. Following

the method developed by Wang, Rahman, Siegal, and Fisher

(2000), I generate 100 resamples from the original sample of each

country using the bootstrapping normal approximation method

and replicate decomposition to estimate the standard deviations of

decomposition analyses. According to Wang et al. (2000), the

standard deviations of the sampling distribution may be close to

the standard errors of the component effects with 50-200

resamples (Efron & Tibshirani, 1986). Each resample size accounts

for 20% of the original sample. Then I conduct 100 decomposition

analyses for each country (100 x 22), estimate standard deviations,

and conduct t-tests.

IV. Results

A. Household Composition

Table 1 shows household composition patterns by country.

Consistent with the living arrangements of young adults revealed in

previous studies, more than 60% of young Scandinavian adults

lives alone or with their spouses, although about 45% of young


adults stays with their parents. Meanwhile, the majority

of young respondents in Spain, East Asia, and post-socialist

countries lives with their parents. With 62% of respondents

residing with their coupled parents, the household composition of

Taiwan seems to be the most economically beneficial for young

adults. In addition, many young people live in households with

their grandparents, other relatives, or non-family household

members (i.e. category “others”).