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Decomposing Youth Poverty in 22 Countries


important institutional and structural factors contributing to these

variations are employment protection regulations and the role of

educational systems in signaling (Breen, 2005). Some typologies

cluster countries by employment regime based on patterns of

employment, employment protection regulations, signaling systems,

and other structural indicators (Bambra & Eikemo, 2009; Gallie &

Paugam, 2000; Quintini et al., 2007; Vogel, 2003; Walther, 2006).

These typologies overlap with Esping-Anderson’s (1990) classification

of welfare regimes, although some studies show possible

convergence across welfare states (Cinalli & Giugni, 2013).

The Scandinavian labor market is characterized by a high rate

of employment for men and women, moderate youth

unemployment, a high youth-to-adult unemployment ratio, and

flexible work hours. Given the tradition of comprehensive welfare

systems, employment protection is high (Esping-Andersen, 1990,

1999; OECD, 2015; Quintini et al., 2007; Stier


Lewin-Epstein, &

Braun, 2001; Vogel, 2003; Walby, 2004).

Continental countries including Austria and Germany, are

characterized by low youth unemployment, low youth-to-adult

unemployment, moderate earnings inequality, and intermediate

levels of social protection. A key factor in the low youth

unemployment is the dual education system

the combination of

apprenticeships in companies and vocational education at public

vocational schools

to smooth the transition from school to work

(Breen, 2005; Quintini et al., 2007; Vogel, 2003; Walby, 2004;

Walthier, 2006).

The employment regimes of Anglo-Saxon countries feature

low youth unemployment, a high youth-to-adult unemployment

ratio, flexibility in the market, high-quality education, but fewer

temporary jobs. Compared to Scandinavian countries, labor market

income inequality in liberal countries is high, and social protections

are limited (Quintini et al., 2007; Vogel, 2003; Walther, 2006).

Southern European countries tend to have low labor force

participation for men and women, high unemployment, long bouts