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Decomposing Youth Poverty in 22 Countries


Appendix A: Missing data

Some countries from the LIS database have been excluded

from the final analysis for the following reasons. The 2010 wave of

data is not available for Belgium, China, and Sweden. The income

data of Hungary, Georgia, Greece, Italy, and Russia were collected

net of taxes and social security contributions and thus I am not able

to estimate BTST income poverty and welfare effectiveness based

on these data files. In addition, I exclude India, South Africa, and

South American countries because these countries generally have a

lower national income and their poverty patterns may be less

comparable to those observed in most high-income countries


Some countries, such as Israel, that are less likely to fit into in the

welfare regime types outlined here (Lewin-Epstein, Adler, &

Semyonov, 2004), are also excluded from the analysis.

In addition, respondents are excluded if data are missing on

their BTST income (LIS-harmonized measure, including total

payments from labor, property, and social or private transfers),

total social transfer income (LIS-harmonized, including social

security, disability, family benefits, etc.), after tax and transfer

income (LIS-harmonized), and individual and household

characteristics (e.g. the age and gender of the respondent, the

relation of the respondent to household head, the numbers of

children and adults in the household, and the gender, age, and

partnership of household head). The missing cases account for less

than 7% of the survey sample of each country.