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Decomposing Youth Poverty in 22 Countries

325

S.D.

1.71

0.78

2.00

2.19

East Asian

Japan

3.56*

0.53

3.04^

-0.01

S.D.

1.50

0.77

1.79

1.24

South Korea

3.79**

-0.02

3.96*

-0.14

S.D.

1.28

0.58

1.75

1.59

Taiwan

--

--

--

--

Southern European

Spain

10.01***

-0.01

12.61***

-2.59

S.D.

1.47

0.63

2.29

2.02

Note: ^

p

<.1, *

p

<.05, **

p

<.01, ***

p

<.001 (two-tailed t-tests)

points. On the other hand, given that other Southern European

countries (i.e. Greece and Italy) are excluded from the analysis

because the data on gross income are not available for the two

countries, Spain alone may not represent the youth poverty pattern

in Southern Europe.

In addition, the youth poverty patterns are quite similar in

East Asian countries. BTST income poverty is the major

contributor to the three percentage point poverty disparity

between Taiwan and the other two East Asian countries. The

effects of living arrangements and welfare effectiveness are

negligible. The decomposition analyses confirm that Japan, South

Korea, and Taiwan differ from most Western countries in terms of

poverty patterns, household composition, market structures, and

social welfare systems.

Finally, Table 5 presents the results for the decomposition

analyses and t

-

tests on the basis of 100 resamples of each country.

The results based on the resamples are generally similar to the

results based on the original samples. The youth poverty rate for

Taiwan is significantly lower than most countries with the

exceptions of Australia, Luxembourg, and Switzerland. The more

independent living arrangements of young Scandinavian adults

significantly contribute to the observed poverty discrepancies. On

the other hand, the household composition patterns of young

adults from societies with prevalent intergenerational coresidence

(e.g. Japan, South Korea, Spain, and post-socialist countries) do