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rates of youth poverty? To what extent does each structural factor

contribute to cross-national variations in youth poverty?

Using data on 22 countries from the Luxembourg Income

Study (LIS), this research decomposes the effects of household

composition, the market, and social welfare on youth poverty. As

the economic well-being of young adults is deteriorating, this study

investigates the contributions of household composition, the

market, and social transfers to youth poverty. This study expands

the scope of international studies of poverty by including East

Asian countries, which differ from Western countries in their

poverty patterns, living arrangements, welfare systems, and market


II. Background

A. Define Young Adults

Studies have placed young adulthood between the ages of 15

and 24 (United Nations), 18 and 24 (LIS), or 18 and 29 (Arnett,



, & Sugimura


2014). Considering the profound

changes in the transition to adulthood, including a prolonged

education period, delayed market employment, and later marriage,

Arnett (2000) coined the term “emerging adulthood” (Arnett et al.,

2014). According to Arnett et al. (2014), the years from 18 to 29

constitute a distinctive demographic, psychological, and subjective

developmental stage. In contrast to children, and to adults in their

30s or older, people aged 18-29 frequently change living

arrangements, educational pursuits, work status, and romantic

relationships. Most young people aged 18-29 do not feel like

adults (Tanner, 2014). Many of the transitions of adulthood, such

as changes in residential, educational, and work arrangements,

carry an inherent risk of poverty (Iacovou, 2009). In many

countries, young adults aged 18-29 are vulnerable to poverty

(Aassve et al., 2013; Ayllón, 2015). Based on the discussion above,

this study defines young adults as individuals aged 18-29.