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mission of the British Raj and to the divided loyalties and

independence movements of colonial subjects. Writing about

independence movements in

A God in Every Stone

, however, Shamsie

does not retreat to extreme patriotism that she has criticized in



. Instead, when she challenges the global design of imperialism

from the subaltern perspective as Mignolo has called for, Shamsie

focuses more on internal changes within individual, societal and

national identities than on the exclusion of others.

As a dual national of both Britain and Pakistan, Shamsie in

A God

in Every Stone

revisits the shared history of British and Peshawari

women fighting against patriarchy, and thus brings her

cosmopolitanism to a third level, which is also the most critical one. In

advocating women’s rights beyond borders, the novel raises the

question of how feminists in different countries, from different

cultures or of different religions, may find common ground. In

criticizing Vivian for being a Western imperialist when she speaks as a

human rights advocate “on behalf of the women of the Peshawar

Valley” (Shamsie, 2014c: 273), the novel warns against the constraint

of rooted cosmopolitanism. There is a danger in rooted

cosmopolitanism that should be noted when well-intentioned but

misguided activists mistake their local experience and knowledge

rooted in a specific national context for a transnational experience

shared by people all over the world. A rooted cosmopolitan should

therefore reflexively problematize the self to create a world of