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observations of the world in which she dwells, exposing the

fallacy of religious oppression of sexuality, the brutality of

wars, the unreliability of male textuality, the hypocrisy of the

Dublin community, etc. As resistant and unconventional as her

male counterpart, Molly performs the intellectual function of

rejecting ready-made clichés and speaking the truth to power.

The representation of the outspoken anti-intellectual Molly

who has the last word of


, along with the description of

the loveable semi-intellectual Leopold, may suggest on one

hand Joyce’s poignant critique of the arrogant and snobbish

intellectuals such as Deasy and Menton, and the corrupt and

degenerate ones like Crawford, O’Molloy, MacHugh, and

others who fail to live up to their calling: it is not the social

elites, but rather the common people, or the masses, who may

act as the backbone and conscience of modern Irish society,

and it is the outsider detached from the center of power who is

more likely to challenge ready-made ideology and speak the

truth to power. Joyce’s depictions of Bloom and Molly, on the

other hand, may also imply his dialogue with the idealistic

intellectuals, his younger self included, who overlook the

realistic aspects and confront limits to their projects. The

frustrated Stephen needs to strike a balance between idealistic

and materialistic aspects, to learn from Bloom to embrace life

while rejecting easy formulas, to question authorities but

remain open-minded to possibilities, and to replace bitterness

and aloofness with caring and tolerance. The materialistic and

idealistic aspects, as a matter of fact, form part and parcel of

Joyce the mature intellectual. By contrasting Bloom and Molly

with the “talents” in


, in summary, Joyce rethinks the

role of the intellectual, counteracting the overly idealistic

Western philosophy with the representations of his new Irish