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form of everyday experiences. As such, the violence and violation

conduced from public events such as war, colonization, or military

coercion, instead of creating trauma, are turned into affective

events of subject-formation. Characters move through the

historical events, responding to the intensity of the events in the

milieu, making adjustments and adaptation, and undergoing


In order to substantiate my argument that affective response

can be a force contributing to subject-formation, I find it useful to

draw a parallel between historiography and Foucaudian theory of

power. If we place the formation of affective subject in the matrix

of Foucauldian discourse of power, the events of the public can be

seen as the manifestations of institutional power, while the crisis in

the everyday is that of the disciplinary power.

Institutional power

is top-down and coercive, and is exercised through government

and institutions; disciplinary power is implicated in everyday life

and exercised through disciplinary institutions, such as schools,

hospitals, families, and intimate domains. Hardt and Negri would

call the institutional power a transcendent form of rule, and the

subtle disciplinary power an immanent form of governance.


While transcendent power is repressive, and often results in

outright confrontation and resistance, the immanent form of rule,

i.e. disciplinary governance, appears to be positive for it produces

knowledge and discourses internalized by individuals, hence

enabling individuals to govern themselves. The writing of national

history often concentrates on events of epochal significance, thus

foregrounding the exercise of transcendent power

the power of

the government and institutions

which assimilates the subject into


The terms immanence and transcendence are originated from Deleuze and

Guattari and adopted by Hardt and Negri to differentiate a specific form of

power (immanence) that characterizes the boundless space of Empire from

that of the sovereign power (transcendence). For Hardt and Negri, the power

of immanence is an uncontainable power, which is protean with infinite

creativity. This immanent power is in contrast with a restricting power of

transcendence. See Hardt and Negri (2000)