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(Kalmijn & van Tubergen, 2010). Such racial variations in

intermarriage rates are due to religio-cultural differences between

the minority and larger society and to the stronger social

boundaries kept in the minority group. The practice of arranged

marriage further reinforces the pattern of racial/ethnic endogamy

among Asian Indians. Both of these factors have led to more

traditional union formation patterns among the Asian Indian

population in the U.S. Hence, they were grouped together with

other South Asians in later analyses.

Based on the literature reviewed so far, the variations in

socioeconomic profiles and cultural values between Asian

immigrants from East Asia, South Asia, and the Philippines are

valuable in conceptualizing ethnic variations in first union

characteristics among Asian Americans. Together with the

empirical patterns of ethnic differences in union formation

discussed above, four research hypotheses are posed for this study:

H1: Filipino Americans are more likely to have cohabited than East

or South Asian Americans.

H2: East Asian and Filipino Americans are less likely to be married

during young adulthood than their South Asian counterparts.

H3: First marriages formed by Filipino Americans are more likely

to be preceded by cohabitation, and their first cohabitations

are more likely to end in marriage than those of East and

South Asian Americans.

H4: East Asian and Filipino Americans are more likely to partner

with whites in both marital and cohabiting unions than their

South Asian counterparts.

II. Research Design

A. Data

The data come from the first and fourth waves of the Add

Health that were collected in years 1994-1995 and 2007-2008.