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meaningful interchanges” (2001: 9). Furthermore, on September

22, 2005, following Michael Poulsen’s (2005) research and in

response to the bombings on July 7 in London,


Trevor Phillips,

then Director of the Commission for Racial Equality, asserted in a

speech that “Britain was sleepwalking into segregation” and “that

cities like Bradford and Leicester were comparable in their levels of

ghettoization to Chicago” (Peach, 2009: 1381). On the other hand,

as Cantle points out, “much of the denial” of self-segregation is

“based upon the view that the very idea is tantamount to ‘blaming

minorities’ for the problems of multiculturalism” (2012: 59). The

geography scholar Deborah Phillips argues, for example, that,

central to the Community Cohesion Review Team’s assertion of “a

series of parallel lives” is “the claim that people of South Asian

origin, particularly British Muslims, are failing to be active citizens

by withdrawing from social and spatial interactions with wider

British society” (2006: 25).

The area defined as a ghetto has changed slightly over time,

although several common characteristics have been strongly etched

into people’s impressions, and especially strongly associated with

ethnic minority groups. According to the

Encyclopedia Britannica


“ghetto” was “formerly a street, or quarter, of a city set apart as a

legally enforced residence area for Jews” (ghetto, 2014), and one

of the earliest “forced segregations” of Jews can be traced to

Muslim Morocco in 1280, when Jews “were transferred to

segregated quarters called


.” Although the ghettos for Jews

were no longer enforced in Western Europe after the 19th century,

and were only briefly “revived by the Nazis during World War II,”

the meaning of the ghetto as “enforced residence area” has been

retained, and “more recently the term ghetto has come to apply to

any urban area exclusively settled by a minority group.” The most


The bombings on July 7 in London were a series of coordinated suicide attacks

using the public transport system, which resulted in the deaths of 52 commuters.

Three of the four suicide bombers were of Pakistani descent and from


where Pakistani immigrants have become concentrated over time.