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history. But even with the positive energy that comes with

reaffirming one’s loyalty to the national ideal, one can never escape

anxiety by betraying those one loves. In the final scene of the novel,

the reader finds Anna listening to a tape recording of Guevarra, a

veteran guerrilla fighter who votes for death sentences for his wife

and son in a public trial, for they, like Manolo, have betrayed the

guerrillas. Guevarra’s need to articulate his betrayal of his family,

and Anna’s need to listen to Guevarra’s story, testify to the

formation of a new zone of intimacy that is connected by their

shared anxieties over the fragile and ambiguous boundaries

between loyalty and betrayal, public concern and private feeling.

At the end of the novel, Anna retreats to a small village in

Laguna. She brings with her a radio and a recorder, with which she

teaches the children of the village to gain access to the experiences

of the modern and the contemporary. With these facilities of

postmodern information technology, the novel hints at her

severance from her ancestor’s strategy of becoming-Filipina. Maya

dies wearing the necklace of diamond and emerald which she stole

from the statue of the Virgin Mary. It is her emblem of shame, but

also the mark of her becoming-Filipina. The necklace is later

remade into a pair of diamond-and-emerald earrings, which Anna

finds in her mother’s jewel box, but subsequently pawns. In place

of the necklace, she turns to modern means of communication,

such as a tape recorder and radio to pass down memories and

history to the children in the village. Previously, Anna listened to

the radio to make up for her loss of family and memory; now the

tape recorder and the radio redirect her obsession with the past to

the promise of the future. That future begins with her listening to

the Guevarra’s tape recording, and her students listening to the

radio. These new modern technologies mediate the affect from one

person to another, from the individual to the collective. Stories,

music, children’s nursery rhymes, and folk tales on the tongues of

the people in the street, amplified, multiplied and circulated

through information machines, produce a milieu that gives the